Construction and Demolition Debris (C&DD) Processing

Processing construction and demolition debris (C&DD) materials conserves landfill space, reduces the environmental impact of producing new materials, creates jobs, and can reduce overall building project expenses through avoided purchase/disposal costs.

A C&DD Processing Facility is a site, location, tract of land, installation, or building that is used or intended to be used for processing, transferring, or recycling C&DD that was generated off the premises of the facility.

Processing is the receipt or storage of construction and demolition debris, or the movement of construction and demolition debris from vehicles or containers to a working surface, for purposes of separating the debris into individual types of materials as a commodity for use in a beneficial manner that does not constitute disposal.

The tabs below present additional information and resources to assist in complying with regulatory requirements. If you have any questions, please contact Aaron Shear at (614) 728-5350.

Recycling means processing construction and demolition debris that would otherwise be disposed of and returning the material to commerce as a commodity for use in a beneficial manner. The Recycling Certification Institute (RCI) is a voluntary C&DD recycling third party validation program available to facilities that process C&DD. The purpose of this program is to encourage more recycling of C&DD materials. See the “RCI” tab for more information.


C&DD Processing Facilities are required to submit a one-time “Application for Registration” to the licensing authority. Other Ohio EPA programs, such as the Division of Air Pollution Control or Division of Surface Water, may also regulate activities at C&DD Processing Facilities.

A C&DD Processing Facility needs to conduct its activities and operations in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local laws, regulations, ordinances, and requirements.  The facility must have all applicable Federal, State, and local permits, licenses, registrations, and certifications; those permits, licenses, registrations, and certifications need to be valid, not revoked, and not suspended.  Additionally, it should operate in a manner that avoids the creation of any nuisance to the surrounding community.

If you are starting or expanding a C&DD Processing Facility in Ohio, it is important to determine whether in addition to completing the Application for Registration for the licensing authority (Ohio EPA or Health District) for C&DD processing, you need other environmental permits. Failure to understand and comply with Ohio EPA’s permitting requirements can result in violations or delays that can cost you time and money.  Most environmental permits are written for specific emission sources and the permitting process may take a few months.  Depending on its design, a C&DD Processing Facility may require multiple permits, depending on the layout and types of operations planned.  Some common environmental permits include a storm water permit(s), air pollution permit(s), indirect discharge permit, NPDES discharge permit, or the installation of a wastewater treatment system.

    For further assistance with this section, see Ohio EPA’s “Guide to Environmental Permitting in Ohio” or contact the Office of Compliance Assistance and Pollution Prevention (OCAPP). Phone (800) 329-7518 or (614) 644-3469 / FAX (614) 644-2807.  

     

    A major factor in the success of a recycling operation is the degree of contamination of the material. Purity of the recovered product encourages higher resale prices. Product purity may be reduced at some processing facilities because of the aggressive handling of the mixed waste stream.  Therefore, it is important to provide a quality product to end users.  Markets may exist for recycled drywall, asphalt, concrete, and shingles.  For instance, concrete recycling is becoming an increasingly popular way to utilize aggregate left behind when structures or roadways are demolished. In the past, this rubble was disposed of in landfills, but with more attention being paid to environmental concerns, concrete recycling allows reuse of the rubble while also keeping construction costs down.

     


    Ohio EPA's Office of Compliance Assistance and Pollution Prevention recently launched the Ohio Materials Marketplace, an online network designed to facilitate cross-industry materials reuse among Ohio companies and organizations. The Ohio Materials Marketplace aims to create a closed-loop, collaborative network of businesses, organizations and entrepreneurs where one organization’s hard-to-recycle wastes and by-products become another organization’s raw material. In addition to diverting waste from landfills, these recovery activities generate significant cost savings and create new jobs and business opportunities. Participation is open to any company or organization with operations in Ohio.


    Apply today to join the Ohio Materials Marketplace. If you have questions or need assistance with the form, please contact Frank Basting at 614-644-3544

     

    "Clean hard fill" means construction and demolition debris which consists only of reinforced or nonreinforced concrete, asphalt concrete, brick, block, tile, and/or stone which can be reutilized as construction material. Brick in clean hard fill includes but is not limited to refractory brick and mortar. Clean hard fill does not include materials contaminated with hazardous wastes, solid wastes, or infectious wastes.  [OAC 3745-400-01(C)(1)]

    "Construction and demolition debris" or "debris" [C&DD] means those materials resulting from the alteration, construction, destruction, rehabilitation, or repair of any manmade physical structure, including, without limitation, houses, buildings, industrial or commercial facilities, or roadways. "Construction and demolition debris" does not include materials identified or listed as solid wastes, infectious wastes, or hazardous wastes pursuant to Chapter 3734. of the Revised Code and rules adopted under it; or materials from mining operations, nontoxic fly ash, spent nontoxic foundry sand, and slag; or reinforced or nonreinforced concrete, asphalt, building or paving brick, or building or paving stone that is stored for a period of less than two years for recycling into a usable construction material. [OAC 3745-400-01(C)(2)]

    For the purpose of this definition, "materials resulting from the alteration, construction, destruction, rehabilitation, or repair of any manmade physical structure," are those structural and functional materials comprising the structure and surrounding site improvements, such as brick, concrete and other masonry materials, stone, glass, wall coverings, plaster, drywall, framing and finishing lumber, roofing materials, plumbing fixtures, heating equipment, electrical wiring and components containing no hazardous fluids or refrigerants, insulation, wall-to-wall carpeting, asphaltic substances, metals incidental to any of the above, and weathered railroad ties and utility poles.

    "Materials resulting from the alteration, construction, destruction, rehabilitation, or repair" do not include materials whose removal has been required prior to demolition, and materials which are otherwise contained within or exist outside the structure such as solid wastes, yard wastes, furniture, and appliances. Also excluded in all cases are liquids including containerized or bulk liquids, fuel tanks, drums and other closed or filled containers, tires, and batteries.

    Disposal” means the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, emitting, or placing of any construction and demolition debris into or on any land or ground or surface water or into the air, except if the disposition or placement constitutes storage, reuse, or recycling in a beneficial manner.  [OAC 3745-400-01(D)(3)]

    Processing Facility” means a site, location, tract of land, installation, or building that is used or intended to be used for the purpose of processing, transferring, or recycling construction and demolition debris that was generated off the premises of the facility. As used in this paragraph, "transferring" means the receipt or storage of construction and demolition debris, or the movement of construction and demolition debris from vehicles or containers to a working surface and into other vehicles or containers, for purposes of transporting the debris to a solid waste landfill facility, a construction and demolition debris facility, or a processing facility.

    Prohibited materials” includes items whose removal has been required prior to demolition, and materials which are otherwise contained within or exist outside the structure such as solid wastes, yard wastes, furniture, appliances, bulk liquids, fuel tanks, drums and other closed or filled containers, tires, batteries, as well as pulverized debris.

    Pulverized debris” means a load of debris that, after demolition has occurred, but prior to acceptance of the load of debris for disposal, has been shredded, crushed, ground, or otherwise rendered to such an extent that the load of debris is unidentifiable as construction and demolition debris. [ORC 3714.01]

    Recovered Screen Material” [RSM] means the fines fraction, consisting of soil and other small materials, derived from the processing or recycling of construction and demolition debris which passes through a final screen size no greater than ¾ of an inch.

    Recycling” means processing construction and demolition debris that would otherwise be disposed of and returning the material to commerce as a commodity for use in a beneficial manner that does not constitute disposal. [OAC 3745-400-01(R)(1)]

    Reuse” means reincorporating a material as part of a structure and does not include reincorporating a material as fill. [OAC 3745-400-01(R)(3)]

    Storage” means the holding of debris for a temporary period in such a manner that it remains retrievable and substantially unchanged and, at the end of the period, is disposed, reused, or recycled in a beneficial manner. [OAC 3745-400-01(S)(3)]
     

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    Oil and Gas/C&DD
    Sarvis, Harry Manager (614) 644-3519
    Shear, Aaron Supervisor, Oil and Gas/C&DD (614) 728-5350
    Fair, Alexandria Environmental Specialist 2, Oil and Gas/C&DD (614) 644-3174
    Chapman, Barry Environmental Specialist 2, Oil and Gas/C&DD (614) 728-5344
    Joanna Asuncion Environmental Specialist 2, Oil and Gas/C&DD (614) 728-5349
         
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