Construction and Demolition Debris (C&DD) Processing

Processing construction and demolition debris (C&DD) materials conserves landfill space, reduces the environmental impact of producing new materials, creates jobs, and can reduce overall building project expenses through avoided purchase/disposal costs.

A Processing Facility is a site, location, tract of land, installation, or building that is used or intended to be used for processing, transferring, or recycling C&DD that was generated off the premises of the facility.

Processing is the receipt or storage of construction and demolition debris, or the movement of construction and demolition debris from vehicles or containers to a working surface, for purposes of separating the debris into individual types of materials as a commodity for use in a beneficial manner that does not constitute disposal.

Recycling means processing construction and demolition debris that would otherwise be disposed of and returning the material to commerce as a commodity for use in a beneficial manner. A voluntary C&DD recycling third party certification program is available in to facilities that recycle C&DD. The purpose of this program is to encourage more recycling of C&DD material. See the “Certification Program” tab for more information.

A voluntary C&DD recycling third party certification program is available in to facilities that recycle C&DD. The purpose of this program is to encourage more recycling of C&DD material. See the “Certification Program” tab for more information.

The tabs below present additional information and resources to assist in complying with regulatory requirements. If you have any questions, please contact Aaron Shear at (614) 728-5350.

C&DD Processing Facilities are required to submit a one-time “Application for Registration” to the licensing authority. Other Ohio EPA programs, such as air or surface water, may regulate activities at such facilities.

A C&DD Processing Facility needs to conduct its activities and operations in compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local laws, regulations, ordinances, and requirements.  The facility must have all applicable Federal, State, and local permits, licenses, registrations, and certifications; those permits, licenses, registrations, and certifications need to be valid, not revoked, and not suspended.  Additionally, it should operate in a manner that avoids the creation of any nuisance to the surrounding community.

If you are starting or expanding a C&DD Processing Facility in Ohio, it is important to determine whether in addition to completing the Application for Registration for the licensing authority (Ohio EPA or Health District) for C&DD processing, you need other environmental permits. Failure to understand and comply with Ohio EPA’s permitting requirements can result in violations or delays that can cost you time and money.  Most environmental permits are written for specific emission sources and the permitting process may take a few months.  Depending on its design, a C&DD Processing Facility may require multiple permits, depending on the layout and types of operations planned.  Some common environmental permits include a storm water permit(s), air pollution permit(s), indirect discharge permit, NPDES discharge permit, or the installation of a wastewater treatment system.

    For further assistance with this section, see Ohio EPA’s “Guide to Environmental Permitting in Ohio” or contact the Office of Compliance Assistance and Pollution Prevention (OCAPP). Phone (800) 329-7518 or (614) 644-3469 / FAX (614) 644-2807.  

     

    PowerPoint from March 27th Webinar

    Becoming a Certified C&DD Recycler

    Recycling Certification Institute and Program Background

    As explained on its website, the Recycling Certification Institute (“RCI”) oversees a national certification program to ensure integrity, transparency, accuracy and reliability in the recovery/recycling reports of participating C&DD recycling facilities. The RCI uses independent third-party evaluators to verify the accuracy and reliability of the recovery/recycling rates reported. Providing a rigorous set of protocols, guidelines, and tools to professionally review and certify the recovery/recycling reports of participating C&DD recyclers, the Institute is intended to increase certainty and build confidence in the C&DD recycling marketplace on the part of project owners, architects, the environmental community, municipalities and the public.

    RCI has agreed to expand its existing third-party recycling certification program to include additional parameters for C&DD recycling facilities wanting to dispose of materials generated from the recycling process in Ohio landfills.  Over the past several months, Ohio EPA has worked closely with representatives of RCI and the Construction and Demolition Association of Ohio (CDAO) to adapt the existing RCI certification program to Ohio. Together, we have developed an “Ohio addendum” to RCI’s existing certification program.

    Under this expanded certification program, landfill operators will be able to accept the RSM and other small particles from a certified C&DD recycler with the assurance that these materials meet the definition of C&DD in Ohio. Participation and use of the RCI certification program and Ohio addendum is entirely voluntary and is limited to C&DD recyclers that can demonstrate a recycling rate of 40% or above.  
     

    Certification Process

    An RCI certification will be valid for five years, subject to an annual recertification. The RCI certification and annual recertification will be conducted by RCI-trained, independent auditors. These auditors will receive specific training on the Ohio C&DD addendum. All evaluators approved by RCI to perform the Ohio addendum will have extensive knowledge of the Ohio C&DD laws, policies and guidance.  Among other factors, the auditors will be certifying that the C&DD recycling facility processes only C&DD as that term is defined in Ohio Revised Code §3714.01 and meets  a minimum 40% recycling rate .  At the completion of a successful audit and at the end of the annual recertification, the auditor will issue a certification that the facility meets the specified standards.

    The facility operator will also complete a certification at the end of the audit which certifies that the facility meets the specified standards (See Attachment B for a copy of the certification to be signed by the facility operator). Thereafter, the facility will complete a monthly certification that it continues to operate under the same policies and procedures that were certified by the auditor. The annual and monthly certifications completed by the facility operator will be sent to the following: (1) Ohio landfills that accept waste from the recycler; (2) the associated landfill licensing authority; and (3) Ohio EPA, Division of Materials and Waste Management (DMWM) Supervisor, SWC&IS Unit.   A list of RCI certified facilities and their detailed reports will be available on the RCI website.
     

    Regulatory Status of RSM and smaller particles

    RSM and smaller particles generated from RCI certified C&DD recycling facilities having the Ohio addendum and the necessary recycling facility operator certifications is C&DD and not “pulverized debris” as defined in ORC section 3714.01(I) or “solid waste” as defined in ORC section 3734.01(E). RSM and smaller particles from these facilities may be reliably disposed as C&DD at any Ohio landfill facility authorized to take C&DD. When accepting these materials, the landfill operator must request a certification from the transfer facility/recycling facility under ORC 3714.082 that material transferred is not off-specification material, hazardous waste, infectious wastes or low-level radioactive waste. The certifications required by this program will satisfy that requirement. Ohio EPA will rely on these certifications and will not cite disposal of RSM from certified C&DD recyclers as a violation of ORC section 3714.081 or ORC section 3734.03 solely on the basis that the material is unrecognizable as C&DD.
     

    Disposal Fees on RSM

    When disposed in Ohio landfills, the RSM and smaller particles generated by these RCI certified recycling facilities having the Ohio addendum and the necessary recycling facility operator certifications are C&DD and subject to C&DD disposal fees.

     

    A major factor in the success of a recycling operation is the degree of contamination of the material. Purity of the recovered product encourages higher resale prices. Product purity may be reduced at some processing facilities because of the aggressive handling of the mixed waste stream.  Therefore, it is important to provide a quality product to end users.  Markets may exist for recycled drywall, asphalt, concrete, and shingles.  For instance, concrete recycling is becoming an increasingly popular way to utilize aggregate left behind when structures or roadways are demolished. In the past, this rubble was disposed of in landfills, but with more attention being paid to environmental concerns, concrete recycling allows reuse of the rubble while also keeping construction costs down.

     


    Ohio EPA's Office of Compliance Assistance and Pollution Prevention recently launched the Ohio Materials Marketplace, an online network designed to facilitate cross-industry materials reuse among Ohio companies and organizations. The Ohio Materials Marketplace aims to create a closed-loop, collaborative network of businesses, organizations and entrepreneurs where one organization’s hard-to-recycle wastes and by-products become another organization’s raw material. In addition to diverting waste from landfills, these recovery activities generate significant cost savings and create new jobs and business opportunities. Participation is open to any company or organization with operations in Ohio.


    Apply today
    to join the Ohio Materials Marketplace. If you have questions or need assistance with the form, please contact Joseph Klatt.

     

    "Clean hard fill" means construction and demolition debris which consists only of reinforced or nonreinforced concrete, asphalt concrete, brick, block, tile, and/or stone which can be reutilized as construction material. Brick in clean hard fill includes but is not limited to refractory brick and mortar. Clean hard fill does not include materials contaminated with hazardous wastes, solid wastes, or infectious wastes.  [OAC 3745-400-01(E)]

    "Construction and demolition debris" or "debris" [C&DD] means those materials resulting from the alteration, construction, destruction, rehabilitation, or repair of any manmade physical structure, including, without limitation, houses, buildings, industrial or commercial facilities, or roadways. "Construction and demolition debris" does not include materials identified or listed as solid wastes, infectious wastes, or hazardous wastes pursuant to Chapter 3734. of the Revised Code and rules adopted under it; or materials from mining operations, nontoxic fly ash, spent nontoxic foundry sand, and slag; or reinforced or nonreinforced concrete, asphalt, building or paving brick, or building or paving stone that is stored for a period of less than two years for recycling into a usable construction material. [OAC 3745-400-01(F)]

    For the purpose of this definition, "materials resulting from the alteration, construction, destruction, rehabilitation, or repair of any manmade physical structure," are those structural and functional materials comprising the structure and surrounding site improvements, such as brick, concrete and other masonry materials, stone, glass, wall coverings, plaster, drywall, framing and finishing lumber, roofing materials, plumbing fixtures, heating equipment, electrical wiring and components containing no hazardous fluids or refrigerants, insulation, wall-to-wall carpeting, asphaltic substances, metals incidental to any of the above, and weathered railroad ties and utility poles.

    "Materials resulting from the alteration, construction, destruction, rehabilitation, or repair" do not include materials whose removal has been required prior to demolition, and materials which are otherwise contained within or exist outside the structure such as solid wastes, yard wastes, furniture, and appliances. Also excluded in all cases are liquids including containerized or bulk liquids, fuel tanks, drums and other closed or filled containers, tires, and batteries.

    Disposal” means the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, emitting, or placing of any construction and demolition debris into or on any land or ground or surface water or into the air, except if the disposition or placement constitutes storage, reuse, or recycling in a beneficial manner.  [OAC 3745-400-01(N)]

    Processing Facility” means a site, location, tract of land, installation, or building that is used or intended to be used for the purpose of processing, transferring, or recycling construction and demolition debris that was generated off the premises of the facility. As used in this paragraph, "transferring" means the receipt or storage of construction and demolition debris, or the movement of construction and demolition debris from vehicles or containers to a working surface and into other vehicles or containers, for purposes of transporting the debris to a solid waste landfill facility, a construction and demolition debris facility, or a processing facility.

    Prohibited materials” includes items whose removal has been required prior to demolition, and materials which are otherwise contained within or exist outside the structure such as solid wastes, yard wastes, furniture, appliances, bulk liquids, fuel tanks, drums and other closed or filled containers, tires, batteries, as well as pulverized debris.

    Pulverized debris” means a load of debris that, after demolition has occurred, but prior to acceptance of the load of debris for disposal, has been shredded, crushed, ground, or otherwise rendered to such an extent that the load of debris is unidentifiable as construction and demolition debris. [ORC 3714.01(I)]

    Recovered Screen Material” [RSM] means the fines fraction, consisting of soil and other small materials, derived from the processing or recycling of construction and demolition debris which passes through a final screen size no greater than ¾ of an inch.

    Recycling”means processing construction and demolition debris that would otherwise be disposed of and returning the material to commerce as a commodity for use in a beneficial manner that does not constitute disposal.

    Reuse” means reincorporating a material as part of a structure and does not include reincorporating a material as fill. [OAC 3745-400-01(LL)]

    Storage” means the holding of debris for a temporary period in such a manner that it remains retrievable and substantially unchanged and, at the end of the period, is disposed, reused, or recycled in a beneficial manner. [OAC 3745-400-01(OO)]
     

    Phone: (614) 644-2621

    Fax: (614) 728-5315

    Email Webmaster

    Physical address:
    Ohio EPA - DMWM
    Lazarus Government Center
    50 W. Town St., Suite 700
    Columbus, Ohio 43215

    Mailing address:
    Ohio EPA - DMWM
    Lazarus Government Center
    P.O. Box 1049
    Columbus, Ohio 43216-1049 

     

    Oil and Gas/C&DD
    Sarvis, Harry
    Manager (614) 644-3519
    Shear, Aaron Supervisor, Oil and Gas/C&DD
    (614) 728-5350
    Smith, Kelly
    Environmental Specialist 2, Oil and Gas/C&DD (614) 644-3174
         

     800-282-9378